Jalgaon district, also known as East Khandesh district prior to 21-Oct-1960, was earlier a part of “Khandesh”. According to Abul Fazal (Gladwin’s AineAkbari 1157), the name Khandesh is derived from the “Khan” title given by Ahmad-I of Gujarat (1411-1443) to Malik Nasir,the second of the Faruki kings. According to some sources, the name comes from the khandava forest of Mahabharat.The Mahabharat mentions Yuvanshava, the ruler of Toranmal (Nandurbar district) as fighting with the Pandavas.The rock temples and caves at Nashik and Ajanta show that during the first three centuries AD, Khandesh was under the rulers who patronised Buddhism. Thereafter, it was ruled by Saptavananas, Andhrabhrityas, Virsen (Ahir King), Yawan dynasty, Chalukyas, Yadavs and then Alaud-din Khilji, Mohammad Tughlak, Malik Raja Malik Nazir, the Nizam of Hyderabad, and subsequently the Marathas ruled the region.
In the 18th century, Khandesh was captured by British troops from the Holkar regime with Dhule as the headquarters. Hon.Robert Gill was the first officer of British East India Company in the Khandesh District with headquarters in Dhule. In 1906 when Khandesh was divided, east Khandesh became present-day Jalgaon. In 1956 with the reorganization of states, it was included in Bombay state, and with the formation of Maharashtra in 1960, Jalgaon became a district of the state.
In the Parola Tahsils, there are remains of a fort believed to be belonging to the father of the great Rani of Jhansi. All India Congress Session of 1936 was held at Faizpur in Yawal Tehsil. In present times, legendary poetess Bahinabai Chaudhari of Jalgaon spread the fame of the Ahirani dialect across the seven seas. Sane Guruji awakened the labour class while Balkavi Thomre’s poetry enriched socio-cultural life of the district.